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Further discussion of each calendaric unit follows. During the Neo-Babylonian period (between years 626–536 B. In it an angel of the divine presence (thus here too it comes by revelation) tells Moses- “Now you command the Israelites to keep the years in this number—364 days.

C.), the first of Nisannu could fall between the 11th of March and 26th of April, according to the tables of Parker and Dubberstein (1942). Then the year will be complete and it will not disturb its time from its days or from its festivals because everything will happen in harmony with their testimony.

These and other year lengths (e.g., 6,5;15,36) are found as the periods of functions in Babylonian astronomy. The determination of the length of daylight through the year was a prominent part of the development both of the calendar and of astronomy. C., the variation in the length of daylight was interpreted schematically and as a calendaric problem. Evidence that the group followed a calendar that differed from the mainline one appears in 1Qp Hab 11-4–9 which indicates that the Wicked Priest—the archvillain for the covenanters and apparently the reigning high priest—appeared (at Qumran? Since the ritual for this solemn day required that the high priest be at the temple, it is highly unlikely that he would have chosen this day for settling accounts with the Teacher of Righteousness.The term is also used to refer to schedules of events such as festivals. If no adjustment is made to compensate for the asynchrony, the months will fall 11 days behind each year, and after 3 years the sequence of months will be fully one month out of step with the season or with the activity designated to occur in a particular month, such as the barley or date harvest, or sheep shearing (discussion of seasonal activities reflected in month names may be found in Landsberger 1949- 260–65). DIRI=Addaru arkû) was intercalated, one or the other being preferred in various periods. APIN 2.18; see also Landsberger 1915- 101; Langdon 1935- 10 and 46–47). Documents from the reigns of Hammurapi, Nabonidus, Cyrus, and Cambyses attest to the procedure (Bickerman 1980- 22; RLA 5- 289; YOS- 3- 15 and 115, and 196, and further references for intercalary years in the reigns of Samsuiluna and Ammiṣaduqa). One such procedure was based on the observation of the relation between the longitudes of the moon and the Pleiades throughout the year. It appears that the 150 days of 7-24 and the five months from 2/17 to 7/17 refer to the same span of time. It has also been argued that the length of the flood (one year and ten days) may be related to the fact that a solar year is approximately ten days longer than a lunar one, although in a lunar calendar five months would not total 150 days. Yet another practice which appears in the latest OT literature is to employ the Hebrew equivalents of the Babylonian month names. To add to the puzzle, Lev 25-8–9 prescribes that the jubilee years were to begin on 7/10. It is preserved in Ethiopic, but fragments of the work in the original Aramaic have been found among the Dead Sea Scrolls.This entry consists of two articles, one surveying the use of calendars in the ANE and the other surveying ancient Israelite and early Jewish calendars. The problem would be eminently perceptible, since after only 321/2 years a given month would pass through the entire cycle of seasons (as it did in the Middle Assyrian calendar until the time of Tiglath-pileser I; see Weidner 1935–36- 28–29). Parker and Dubberstein (1942- 3) note that preference for a given intercalary month shifted from Ulūlu to Addaru, and suggest an early tradition placing the New Year in Tašrītu as an underlying reason. The ad hoc intercalation of months represented by the royal letters was the standard procedure for controlling the calendar throughout the ANE from approximately the 3d millennium B. until about the middle of the 1st (certainly until 525 B. The conjunction of moon and Pleiades (when they occupy the same position in the sky) on particular dates through the year indicated a normal year, while their “separation” (napalsuhu) indicated a leap year. The practice of numbering months continued for a long time and is attested in some Jewish writings which postdate the Hebrew Bible. 4-13); 1–2 Maccabees; Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs; the Assumption of Moses; 1 Esdras (14-22, 48); 2 Baruch (77-18); Jubilees; 1 Enoch (72–82); 2 Enoch (1-1); Pseudo-Philo (23-1–3, 14); and the Dead Sea Scrolls (on which see below). One finds this custom in Ezra (once), Nehemiah, Esther, and Zechariah—all of which are postexilic books. Thus, the practice or practices before the Exile remain unclear, while there is evidence later for both a vernal and an autumnal inception of the year. The earliest of these extrabiblical sources are the Aramaic papyri of the Jewish military colony in Elephantine on the Nile River. Samaritan papyri have not yet been published in full, the available evidence indicates that the authors used the Babylonian month names. The next book in chronological order is the Astronomical Book of Enoch (1 Enoch 72–82), a work which appears to date from no later than the 3d century B. These indicate that the original text was probably much longer than the Ethiopic version of it. Only the Egyptians (and later the Romans) did not conform, but instead disregarded the irregular natural time indications in favor of regular arbitrary measures, such as the fixed 30-day month or the 365-day year (see D). The effect is that 12 lunations do not divide up the solar year evenly, nor do solar days divide the lunar month into equal parts. On 2/17 the waters begin to come (7-11); they then rise for 150 days (7-24; cf. On 7/17 the ark comes to rest on a mountain (8-4), and on 10/1 the summits of the mountains become visible (8-5). But as one is here dealing with the regnal years of a Persian king, it is not clear that these dates indicate anything about a Jewish calendar. The lunar month was taken uniformly throughout the ANE and Mediterranean (by Sumerians, Babylonians, Assyrians, Hebrews, Arabs, and Greeks) to begin with the sighting of the first visible lunar crescent. Because the motions of sun and moon are not uniform with respect to one another, a lunisolar calendar, which by definition reckons months by the moon and years by the seasons, faces the problem of maintaining synchrony between the 12 lunar months and the solar year. Second, the priestly chronological notes which dot the flood story suggest how long these months lasted. These dates are consistent with a fall inception of the year.

Since the month in which certain fixed stars or constellations had their heliacal rising was known (e.g., Pleiades became visible on the first day of the second month, Aiaru—MUL. The practice of using the Babylonian month names was a product of the Judeans’ exilic and perhaps postexilic contact with the Babylonians and Persians (who borrowed the names from the Babylonians). In the papyri one finds all twelve of the Babylonian/Persian month names- Nisan (A. Cowley, Aramaic Papyri 21) Iyyar (Kraeling, The Brooklyn Museum Aramaic Papyri 14) Sivan (Kraeling 1; 5) Tammuz (Arammic Papyri 30; Kraeling 6) Ab (Arammic Papyri 14) Elul (Arammic Papyri 5; 20; Kraeling 3) Tishri (Arammic Papyri 15; Kraeling 4; 7; 8) Marcheshvan (Arammic Papyri 17; 30; 31; Kraeling 9) Chislev (Arammic Papyri 6; 8; 10; 13; 25) Tebeth (Arammic Papyri 26) Shebat (Arammic Papyri 28) Adar (Arammic Papyre 61; 67; Kraeling 10) Horn and Wood (1954) were able to draw no certain conclusions about whether the Jews of Elephantine had fashioned a precalculated, fixed calendar but noted strong similarities with the Babylonian system. In fact, it sketches two systems- a solar calendar of 364 days (72-32; 74-10, 12; 75-2; 82-4–6) and a lunar one of 354 days (73-1–17; 78-6–17).

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