Elucidating mechanism cellular uptake

Posted by / 30-Oct-2019 04:40

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Exosomes secreted by cells are incorporated into recipient cells, which receive information from the donor cells and exchange functions.

Therefore, exosomes have emerged as important mediators of cell–cell communication involved in various physiological and pathological conditions, such as progression of cancer [].

Therefore, it is important to elucidate how exosomes are incorporated into individual cells after delivery to specific organs and tissues [].

It can be expected that elucidating the exosome uptake mechanism in individual organs and tissues will contribute to restraining the exosome-mediated progression and/or metastasis of cancer.

This discussion is relevant in the context of nanoparticle studies and the emerging interest in nano-nickel (nano-Ni), where toxicity assessments require a clear understanding of the parameters of particulate uptake and where establishment of suchmore » parameters is often obscured through inconsistencies across experimental systems.

In this regard, this review aims to carefully document one system (particulate nickel compound uptake) and characterize its properties.

A variety of particulate Ni compounds persist in the environment and can be distinguished by characteristics such as solubility, structure, and surface charge. Exosomes are found in almost all physiological fluids including urine, plasma, saliva, serum and breast milk, and circulate throughout the whole body.The molecules included in exosomes are potential diagnostic biomarkers of disease [].Recipient cells were treated with Pitstop 2, an inhibitor of clathrin-dependent endocytosis, or genistein, an inhibitor of caveolae-dependent endocytosis, and then incubated with Di O-labeled exosomes.Among the three methods examined, ultracentrifugation was the most efficient and reproducible.

Exosome uptake in HCT116 was inhibited by Pitstop 2, but not genistein, while that in A549 cells was not inhibited by these inhibitors.