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Scholars have defined civilization using various criteria such as the use of writing, cities, a class-based society, agriculture, animal husbandry, public buildings, metallurgy, and monumental architecture.
The term cradle of civilization has frequently been applied to a variety of cultures and areas, in particular the Ancient Near Eastern Chalcolithic (Ubaid period) and Fertile Crescent, Ancient India and Ancient China.
"Sedentary" and "nomadic" communities continued to interact considerably; they were not strictly divided among widely different cultural groups.
Uruk trade networks started to expand to other parts of Mesopotamia and as far as North Caucasus, and strong signs of governmental organization and social stratification began to emerge leading to the Early Dynastic Period (c. The Jemdet Nasr period, which is generally dated from 3100–2900 BC and succeeds the Uruk period, is known as one of the formative stages in the development of the cuneiform script.Charles Rollin's Ancient History (1734) has "Egypt that served at first as the cradle of the holy nation".The phrase "cradle of civilization" plays a certain role in national mysticism.The civilizations that emerged around these rivers are among the earliest known non-nomadic agrarian societies.It is because of this that the Fertile Crescent region, and Mesopotamia in particular, are often referred to as the cradle of civilization.