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Wilson’s personality must bear some of the blame for this disillusionment.
He was a proud man, confident of his objectivity and prestige, and he insisted on being the first U. president to sail to Europe and to conduct negotiations himself.
Ethnic hatreds and rivalries could not be expunged at a stroke, and their persistence hindered the effort to draw or redraw dozens of boundaries, including those of the successor states emerging from the Habsburg empire.
United States, suggested that the dream of a New Jerusalem in world politics was not merely Armistice euphoria.
France alone in 1914 had not chosen war, but had been summarily attacked.
France had provided the major battleground, suffered the most physical damage, and sacrificed a generation of manhood.
Even political enemies hailed Clemenceau (known as “the tiger”) as “père la victoire,” and he determined not to betray the soldiers’ victory in the peace negotiations to come.
But the French vision of a just peace contrasted sharply with Wilson’s.
India alone provided 943,000 soldiers and workers to the British war effort, and the French empire provided the home country with 928,000.