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Whether the feedback was in the observable effects or from other people, in every case the information received was not advice, nor was the performance evaluated.No one told me as a performer what to do differently or how "good" or "bad" my results were.(You might think that the reader of my writing was judging my work, but look at the words used again: She simply played back the effect my writing had on her as a reader.) Nor did any of the three people tell me what to do (which is what many people erroneously think feedback is—advice).Guidance would be premature; I first need to receive feedback on what I did or didn't do that would warrant such advice.
51), producing gains in both conceptual understanding of the subject and problem-solving skills.
Alas, far too much instructional feedback is opaque, as revealed in a true story a teacher told me years ago. In sports, novice tennis players or batters often don't realize that they're taking their eyes off the ball; they often protest, in fact, when that feedback is given. " rarely works.) And we have all seen how new teachers are sometimes so busy concentrating on "teaching" that they fail to notice that few students are listening or learning.
A student came up to her at year's end and said, "Miss Jones, you kept writing this same word on my English papers all year, and I still don't know what it means." "What's the word? That's why, in addition to feedback from coaches or other able observers, video or audio recordings can help us perceive things that we may not perceive as we perform; and by extension, such recordings help us learn to look for difficult-to-perceive but vital information.
Who would dispute the idea that feedback is a good thing?
Both common sense and research make it clear: Formative assessment, consisting of lots of feedback and opportunities to use that feedback, enhances performance and achievement.
The term feedback is often used to describe all kinds of comments made after the fact, including advice, praise, and evaluation. Basically, feedback is information about how we are doing in our efforts to reach a goal.